Organic Chemistry - II

  Alkene Molecular Form Name Structure General Formula ...

 

Alkene

Molecular Form

Name

Structure

General Formula

C2H4

Ethene


C2H4





CnH2n

C3H6

Propene


CH3CH=CH2



Arenes: It is an aromatic hydrocarbon. E.g. Benzene, Naphthalene. These compounds contain a ring-like structure unit.


Molecular structure of C6H6











Benzene

Carboxylic Acid: RCOOH or RCO2H

Examples:


CH3COOH

CH3CH2COOH

Ethanoic Acid

Propanoic Acid


Nitriles: RCN

Example;

CH3CN

Ethane nitrile


Amines: (R – NH2)

E.g. CH3CH2NH2 (Ethanamine)

CH3CH2CH2NH2 (Propanamine)

Isomers: Molecules having the same molecular formula but different structural formula.

E.g.



C5H12

Sample Question:

Addition:




Substitution: CH3CH2Cl + OH-    >  CH3CH2OH + Cl-


Elimination: CH3CH2CH2OH    > conc. H2SO4     > CH3CH = CH2 + H2O


Hydrolysis: CuSO4 (Colorless) (anhydrous) + H2O  >  CuSO4 (aq.) blue

CH3CH2I + H2O     >     CH3CH2OH + HI

Condensation: CH3CH2COOH + CH3CH2OH   >    CH3CH2COOCH2CH3 + H2O

Oxidation: CH3CH2OH    >[O]>             CH3COOH

Reduction: CH3CHO   >[H]>              CH3CH2OH

Ester: R – COOR

or, R CO2 R

Examples:


CH3COOCH3


[Ethanoate methyl] or [Methyl. ethanoate]




CH3CH2COOCH3


[Ethyl ethanoate]



CH3CH2COOCH3


[Methyl propanoate]



CH3CH2COOCH2CH3


[Ethyl propanoate]




Halogen Alkane:

CH3CH2Cl

[Chloro ethane]

CH3F

[Flouro methane]

CH3CH2CH2Br

[Bromo Propane]



Alcohol: R – OH [Alkyl group]

CH3 – OH

Methanol

CH3CH2CH2OH

Propanol

CH3CH2CH2CH2 OH

Butanol


Types of alcohol

*where Primary alcohol is attached to one alkyl group, secondary alcohol is attached to 2-alkyl group and tertiary alcohol is attached to 3-alkyl group.

Aldehydes: R – CHO

Examples:


CH3CHO

Ethanal




CH3CH2CHO


Propanal






Ketones: R – CO – R

Example:


CH3 – CO – CH3

Propanone





Isomers: There are two types of isomers, i.e. Structural and Stereoisomer


Structural Isomers: These isomers are categorized into three different segments. Such as.




a. Chain Isomer: Chain Isomers have the same molecular structure but differ in the order in which C-atoms are bonded to each other.

b. Position isomers: Those isomer that have same carbon skeleton and same functional group, but differ in the location of the functional group.







c. Functional Group Isomers: These isomers have same molecular structure but different functional group.


2. Stereoisomers: These isomers have same molecular structure and sequence of the bonded atoms but it differs due to spatial arrangement of atoms. Stereoisomers are categorized into two forms, i.e. Geometrical (cis-trans) and enatiomeric (optical).



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