Organic Chemistry

  Organic Chemistry a. Alkanes : Saturated (a compound containing carbon-carbon single covalent bond) hydrocarbon compound containing carbo...




 

Organic Chemistry


a. Alkanes: Saturated (a compound containing carbon-carbon single covalent bond) hydrocarbon compound containing carbon and hydrogen only as elementary.


Molecular Form

Name

Structure

General Formula

CH4

Methane











CnH2n+2

where

n= no. of carbon atoms

C2H6

Ethane


C3H8

Propane



Functional group: Atom or group or atom other than hydrogen which gives characteristic property of a compound.

E.g.: CH4 is gas but CH3OH is a liquid CH4 is insoluble in water but CH3OH is soluble. [ OH is a functional group]

Cl2 Cl – Cl Cl o + Cl x

[Homolytic fission (equal division of electron in a bond) gives radical.

(Cl o + Cl x) Radicals: particle with an odd number of electron.

Heterolytic fission (unequal division of electron in a bond) gives ions.

Cl + + [Cl ox] -

15.1

(c) Halogenation of Methane with Chlorine

* Mechanism: Free radical

* Initiation: formation of radicals


Optical isomer: Compound containing four different groups around carbon atoms shows this isomer; the carbon is called chiral marked as optical isomers have almost all physical and chemical properties same except one isomer rotates the plane of polarized light clockwise, another isomer rotates into anticlockwise 2n2 where n = number of optical isomers.

E .g.

Lactic Acid (C3H6O3)

[Non - superimposable (overlapping);

hence gives rise optical isomer]



Molecular form

Name

Structure

General Formula

C4H10

Butane





CnH2n+2


where,

n= number of carbon atoms

C5H12

Pentane


C6H14

Hexane



Alkanes: Unsaturated (a compound containing carbon-carbon double bonds) hydrocarbon

 Geometrical Isomer (cis-trans):

  • Isomer due to the spatial arrangement of atoms or groups of atoms.

  • Isomer having similar chemical, physical properties except melting point/ boiling point; generally cis form has a higher melting point/ boiling point as it is more polar than transform; when two group are on the same side across c = c it is cis form when two groups are on the opposite side across c = c, it is transformed.

C2H2Cl2 => 



C4H8 =>

Origin: Due to restricted rotation around carbon-carbon double bond.





COMMENTS

Name

Chemistry,3,Computer Science,8,Economics,4,General Paper,1,Physics,4,Sociology,4,
ltr
item
Alevel Note: Organic Chemistry
Organic Chemistry
https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-BU5KhYsRyZE/X4OIxG8C7fI/AAAAAAAAAH8/bfKw_iI1h5AKT0RupTo5G3z8lnwr8pMcgCLcBGAsYHQ/s320/Organic%2BChemistry.png
https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-BU5KhYsRyZE/X4OIxG8C7fI/AAAAAAAAAH8/bfKw_iI1h5AKT0RupTo5G3z8lnwr8pMcgCLcBGAsYHQ/s72-c/Organic%2BChemistry.png
Alevel Note
https://www.alevelnote.com/2020/10/organic-chemistry.html
https://www.alevelnote.com/
https://www.alevelnote.com/
https://www.alevelnote.com/2020/10/organic-chemistry.html
true
1254841511416404733
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share to a social network STEP 2: Click the link on your social network Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy Table of Content