Protocol Suite

  Protocol Suite A protocol is a set of rules set that sender and receiver has to follow for communication . In the communication network, g...

 Protocol Suite

A protocol is a set of rules set that sender and receiver has to follow for communication . In the communication network, generally there are two types of protocol, i.e. TCP/ IP protocol for the internet activity.


TCP/ IP suite includes following protocols, they are;

  1. Application Layer: HTTP, SMTP, DNS< FTP, POP3

  2. Transport Layer: TCP, UDP, SCTP

  3. Network Layer: IP, IGMP, ICMP, ARP

How protocol works?

  1. A sender sends message through an application protocol which is then delivered to transport protocol on the same system.

  2. Transport protocol then identifies the same protocol on the receiver end on the application level.

  3. Then the application protocol receives the identical message from the transport protocol in the receiver end.



TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)

  1. TCP is a connection-oriented model system that only functions only after stable connection is established between sender and receiver.

  2. Initially, an end-system sends an initial sequence of packets to the network side. Once the connection is established it sends other packets to the receiver-end in sequential manner.

  3. TCP protocol sends information in smaller packets so that the data has enough space to be stored for guarantee safety of delivery.

  4. When data is stored in packets, it contains a (header and user data). The header includes the sequential number and port number in order to decode and re-assemble the user data in the receiver-end.

  5. After sending the data, it receives a response for acceptance. This allows us to identify any missing packets to resend.



IP Protocol (Internet Protocol)

  1. Internet Protocol is includes in network layer, after data is received from transport layer, it is then added a further header.

  2. This header includes the IP address of the sender and receiver. For the transmission of data to the receiver end, DNS system is used that match to the user link.

  3. Data in IP is send in packets to transport layer, which is then assembled again to the receiver-end.

  4. After the data packets are sent to the transport layer, IP has no further responsibility. If any data packets is remaining from previous data transmission, it sends it to TCP or transport layer.


 Application layer service:

A DNS (Domain Name Service) is given to the name that is associated with the IP address that is the identity of a site. Among the application protocols, there are generally five protocols given in the list below.


  1. HTTP (Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol):

Considered important protocol in application layer protocol to access the website through a browser.


How HTTP works

a. A server receives a lot of requests from different computers, then for identifying the specific services such as DNS, web-services, servers use well known ports. For example, for using the web services such as HTTP service, then port number 80 is used.

b. HTTP sends a request message to the TCP because HTTP is not reliable protocol itself, therefore it uses TCP to use the functionality of sending packets.

c. TCP makes smaller packets to the IP address of the web-page for the establishment of the connection.

d. The server of the webpage receives a lot of requests from different computers, then for identifying the specific services such as DNS, web-services, servers use well known ports. For example, for using the web services such as HTTP service, then port number 80 is used.


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